Posted by: Indonesian Children | August 8, 2009

Bioactive Properties of Human Milk

Human milk also contains growth modulators, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), insulinlike growth factors (IGFs), and interleukins. Transforming growth factor (TGF)–alpha, TGF-beta, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are also identified in human milk. These growth modulators are produced either by the epithelial cells of the mammary gland or by activated macrophages, lymphocytes (mainly T cells), or neutrophils in the milk. EGF and TGF-alpha were found at higher concentrations in the milk of mothers who delivered prematurely compared with those who delivered at term. EGF, TGF-alpha, and human milk stimulate fetal small intestinal cell proliferation in vitro, with the greatest increase in cell proliferation seen following exposure to human milk.

Certain bioactive substances and live cells in milk appear to influence neonatal gut maturation and growth through their transfer of developmental information to the newborn. Although most of these biosubstances have been identified in mother’s milk in quantities that exceed maternal serum levels, their exact role in human newborns is uncertain; most current information is from animal models whose development may significantly differ.




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Information on this web site is provided for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use the information on this web site for diagnosing or treating a medical or health condition. You should carefully read all product packaging. If you have or suspect you have a medical problem, promptly contact your professional healthcare provider. 

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